10 questions, 45 min
Instructions: Read the extract carefully and then answer the ten questions below. Select the right option (A, B, C, D) basing your choice only on the text. On your answer sheet, fill in the space that corresponds to the letter of the answer you have chosen.
Everyone knows someone who can walk into a room full of people and within minutes give an accurate description about the relationships between those people and what they are feeling. The ability to read a person’s attitudes and thoughts by their behaviour was the original communication system used by humans before spoken language evolved.
Before radio was invented, most communication was done in writing through books, letters, and newspapers, which meant that ugly politicians and poor speakers such as Abraham Lincoln could be successful if they persisted long enough and wrote good print copy. The radio era gave openings to people who had a good command of the spoken word, like Winston Churchill, who spoke wonderfully but may have struggled to achieve as much in today’s more visual era.
Today’s politicians understand that politics is about image and appearance, and most high-profile politicians now have personal body-language consultants to help them come across as being sincere, caring, and honest, especially when they’re not.
It seems almost incredible that, over the thousands of years of our evolution, body language has been actively studied on any scale only since the 1960’s and that most of the public has become aware of its existence only since the book Body Language was published in 1978. Yet most people believe that speech is still our main form of communication. Speech has been part of our communication repertoire only in recent times in evolutionary terms, and is mainly used to convey facts and data. Speech probably first developed between two million and five hundred thousand years ago, during which time our brain tripled its size. Before then, body language and sounds made in the throat were the main forms of conveying emotions and feelings, and that is still the case today. But because we focus on the words people speak, most of us are largely uninformed about body language, let alone its importance in our lives.
Our spoken language, however, recognizes how important body language is to our communication. If, for example, you are advised to “keep a stiff upper lip” you are actually told to display fortitude in the face of adversity, or exercises self-restraint in the expression of emotion. It actually comes from the tell-tale sign we are apt to give when we get upset – our lips might tremble. If you keep a stiff upper lip, you are trying not to show you are upset.
|1. What could human beings do to communicate before spoken language evolved?|
2. Before the radio era inept orators could be successful in getting across to peopleA. because they did not persisted long enough. B. because they were ugly and poor. C. because they could speak well. D. because verbal communication wasn’t the major channel of convey-ing information.
3. Radio afforded a good possibility of success toA. people who were good at speaking. B. people who were commanders. C. people who were good at writing. D. all people who lived then.
4. It is suggested in the text that Winston Churchill might beA. an excellent speaker if he lived today. B. having a good command of the spoken word today. C. struggling to achieve much today. D. unsuccessful as a speaker today.
5. Why do some of the politic-ians of today employ body-lan-guage consultants?A. Because they are sincere, caring and honest. B. Because they all are ugly and poor. C. Because they want to make the impression of being frank, solicitous about people and fair. D. Because they want to understand their image and appearance.
6. What made most people realise that there was such a thing as bo-dy-language?A. The evolution of man. B. The publication of a book. C. The development of speech. D. The existence of books.
7. When did body-language start to be studied?A. In 1978. B. In 1960 C. A thousand years before 1960. D. Between 1960 and 1970.
8. How old is speech in evolutionary terms?A. Rather young. B. Very old. C. Ancient. D. Not very young.
9. What transformation did the human body undergo concur-rently with the period of speech development?A. Human brain developed suddenly. B. Human brain increased threefold in size. C. Human beings tripled in size. D. Human beings made their speech triple.
10. What facial gesture are we prone to do when we are distur-bed mentally or emotionally?A. Our lips start quivering. B. We jerk our faces. C. We display our lips. D. Our upper lip trembles.
10 items, 20 minutes
Instructions: Choose the option (A, B, C, D) that is closest to the meaning of the original sentence. Then, on your answer sheet, fill in the space that corresponds to the letter of the answer you have chosen.1. The doctors gave the patient his last treatment and he was able to go home.
A. Having been given the last treatment, the patient was able to go home.
B. Been given the last treatment, the patient was able to go home.
C. After being given the last treatment, the patient was able to go home.
D. Giving his last treatment, the patient was able to go home. 2. The speaker’s voice was not loud enough. It could hardly be heard at the back of the hall. A. The speaker’s voice was barely loud enough to have been heard at the back of the hall. B. The speaker’s voice wasn’t loud enough to be heard at the back of the hall. C. The speaker’s voice was barely loud enough not to be heard at the back of the hall. D. The speaker’s voice wasn’t loud enough not to have been heard at the back of the hall. 3. We have expected from the administrative officer constructive criticism, not threats of reduction of funds. A. Constructive criticism, not threats of reduction of funds is what we have expected from the administrative officer. B. Constructive criticism, not threats of reduction of funds are what we have expected from the administrative officer. C. What we have expected from the administrative officer are constructive criticism, not threats of reduction of funds. D. What have we expected from the administrative officer is constructive criticism, not threats of reduction of funds. 4. She explained why the house was always referred to as ‘The Habitation’. A. It was her to explain why the house was always referred to as ‘The Habitation’. B. It was she to explain why the house was always referred to as ‘The Habitation’. C. It was she that explained why the house was always referred to as ‘The Habitation’. D. It was her that explained why the house was always referred to as ‘The Habitation’. 5. Tom left his credit card behind and he can’t buy this lovely jacket now. A. If Tom hadn’t left his credit card behind, he could have bought this lovely jacket. B. If Tom didn’t leave his credit card behind, he could have bought this lovely jacket. C. If Tom didn’t leave his credit card behind, he could buy this lovely jacket. D. If Tom hadn’t left his credit card behind, he could buy this lovely jacket 6. Judge Henry Lawrence hated Orsatti. So did Joe Romano. A. Judge Henry Lawrence hated Orsatti as much as Joe Romano. B. Judge Henry Lawrence hated Orsatti as much as Joe Romano did. C. Judge Henry Lawrence hated Orsatti much more than Joe Romano. D. Judge Henry Lawrence hated Orsatti much more than Joe Romano did. 7. ‘She couldn’t remember that she was led out of the courtroom’, he said. A. He said she couldn’t remember that she had been led out of the courtroom. B. He said she couldn’t have remembered that she had been led out of the courtroom. C. He said she couldn’t remember that she would be led out of the courtroom. D. He said she couldn’t remember to have been led out of the courtroom. 8. It seems she has lost her shape since she was seventeen. A. She seems to lose her shape since she was seventeen. B. She seems losing her shape since she was seventeen. C. She seems to have lost her shape since she was seventeen. D. She seems having lost her shape since she was seventeen. 9. As she grew older she doubted more and more the tales she heard about the house. A. The older she grew, the more she doubted the tales she heard about the house. B. The older she grew, more she doubted the tales she heard about the house. C. Growing older, she doubted more the tales she heard about the house. D. She grew older so she doubted more the tales she heard about the house. 10. I spotted the deer far down in the valley and thought it was running for its life. A. Spotted far down in the valley, I thought the deer was running for its life. B. Spotted far down in the valley, the deer was running for its life. C. Spotting the deer far down in the valley, it was running for its life. D. I spotted the deer far down in the valley so it was running for its life.
15 items, 25 minutes
Instructions: Choose the correct option (A, B, C, D) that best completes the sentence. Then, on your answer sheet, fill in the space that corresponds to the letter of the answer you have chosen.
1. He feels bad about the way he ___________ me since the day I was almost murdered.
A. has been treating B. is treating C. treats D. had been treating
2. Ten Samurai warriors, five ___________ side, protected their great lead-er.
A. at each B. in each C. on either D. at either
3. They ___________ anything while you were unconscious, but they didn’t.
A. could have done B. could do C. should do D. should have done
4. Riddel, ___________ former banker, is supported by his two secretaries.
A. a fifty-four-years-old B. a fifty-four-year’s old
C. a fifty-four-year-old D. a fifty-four-years’-old
5. Tony submitted two poems to the campus literary magazine, neither of which ___________ .
A. was ever printed B. were ever printed C. have ever been printed D. are ever printed.
6. ‘Hey, it’s great! I ___________ a good libel case before,’ the judge said in his chambers.
A. had never heard B. never heard C. was never hearing D. have never heard
7. ‘And you will stay with me?’ ‘Certainly – unless you ___________ .’
A. don’t object B. won’t object C. object D. will object
8. Finnegan had it all settled this morning, ___________ ?
A. hadn’t he B. didn’t he C. had he D. did he
9. ‘Tell Lord Henry that I surely ___________ to Rome before the end of the year.’
A. would be returning B. could be returning
C. can be returning D. will be returning
10. Her heart sank and suddenly she felt a cold chill ___________ through her limbs.
A. passed B. to pass C. pass D. was passing
11. She ___________ at the studio unannounced in the three years they lived in Rivervale.
A. has never appeared B. would never appear
C. would never be appearing D. had never been appearing
12. While the direction ___________ , the lady consulted moved slowly up the room.
A. was being executed B. was executed C. has been executed D. had been executed.
13. The psychologist suggested that she ___________ some specific goals for her son.
A. set B. had to set C. must set D. might set
14. She ___________ now of the house she had left behind.
A. had been thinking B. was thinking C. is thinking D. has been thinking
15. Circumstances ___________ her own mistress, she had been in a position to choose for herself.
A. which had made her B. that had made her C. which made her D. having made her
15 items, 35 minutes
Instructions: Read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C, D) best fits each gap. Then, on your answer sheet, fill in the space that corresponds to the letter of the answer you have chosen.
THE IMPORTANCE OF IMAGE AND APPEARANCE
When we meet people for the first time, we often (1) ___________ decisions about them based entirely on how they look. And, of course it’s something that works both (2) ___________, for we too are being judged (3) ___________ our appearance. When we look good, we feel good, which (4) ___________ leads to a more confident and self-assured manner. People then (5) ___________ this confidence and respond positively towards us. Undoubtedly, it’s what’s inside that’s important, but sometimes we can send out the wrong signals simply by wearing inappropriate clothing or not spending enough time thinking about how others see us.
For example, people often make the mistake of trying to (6) ___________ like someone else they’ve seen in a magazine, but this is usually a disaster as we all have our own characteristics. Stand in front of a full-length mirror and be honest with yourself about what you see. There is no need to dwell on your faults – we all have good points and bad points – but think (7) ___________ about the best way to emphasize the good ones.
When selecting your clothes each day, think about who you’re likely to meet, where you’re going to be spending most of your time and what tasks you are likely to perform. Clearly, some outfits will be more appropriate to different sorts of activity and this will dictate your choice to a/an (8) ___________. However, there’s no need to (9) ___________ your individual taste completely. After all, if you dress to please somebody else’s idea of what looks good, you may (10) ___________ feeling uncomfortable and not quite yourself.
But to know your own mind, you have to get to know yourself. What do you truly feel good in? There are probably a few favourite items that you wear a lot – most people wear 20 per cent of their (11) ___________ 80 per cent of the time. Look at these clothes and ask yourself what they have (12) ___________. Are they neat and tidy, loose and flowing? Then look at the things hanging in your wardrobe that you don’t wear and ask yourself why. Go through a few magazines and catalogues and mark the things that catch your eye. Is there a common theme?
Some colours (13) ___________ your natural colouring to life and others can give us a washed-out appearance. Try out new colours by all (14) ___________, but remember that dressing in bright colours when you really like subtle neutral tones, or vice versa, will make you feel self-conscious and uncomfortable. You know deep down where your own taste boundaries lie. And although it’s good to challenge those sometimes with new combinations or (15) ___________ of colour, take care not to go too far all at once.
1. A. do B. perform C. make D. manufacture
2. A. ways B. roads C. manners D. times
3. A. in B. from C. by D. on
4. A. in bends B. in turn C. in order D. on turns
5. A. pick up B. take in C. watch D. notice
6. A. look B. watch C. see D. resemble
7. A. in exchange B. in place of C. instead D. instead of
8. A. amount B. extent C. stretch D. small way
9. A. abandon B. give at C. leave D. stay
10. A. expire B. end in C. finish up D. end up
11. A. wardroom B. wardrobe C. cloakroom D. closet
12. A. in all B. together with C. in common D. mutual
13. A. bring B. take C. send D. turn
14. A. costs B. resources C. mean D. means
15. A. tingles B. shades C. shadows D. shakes
Instructions: Read the text. Answer the question in bold expressing your own opinion. Your composition should contain no less than 220 words and no more than 250.
The origin of life is one of the great unsolved problems of science. Nobody knows how, where or when life originated. About all that is known for certain is that microbial life had established itself on Earth by about three and a half billion years ago. In the absence of hard evidence of what came before, there is plenty of scope for disagreement. Thirty years ago the prevailing view among biologists was that life resulted from a chemical fluke so improbable it would be unlikely to have happened twice in the observable universe. That conservative position was exemplified by Nobel Prize–winning French biologist Jacques Monod, who wrote in 1970: “Man at last knows that he is alone in the unfeeling immensity of the universe, out of which he emerged only by chance.” In recent years, however, the mood has shifted dramatically. In 1995 renowned Belgian biochemist Christian de Duve called life “a cosmic imperative” and declared “it is almost bound to arise” on any Earth-like planet. De Duve’s statement reinforced the belief among astrobiologists that the universe is teeming with life. Dubbed biological determinism by Robert Shapiro ofNew YorkUniversity, this theory is sometimes expressed by saying that “life is written into the laws of nature.”
Paul Davies, Are Aliens Among Us?
Do you think we are the only intelligent life form existing in the Universe?
Two weeks later, Lieutenant Lorraine Page was officially out of the precinct. No disciplinary action was taken. She lost her pension, her career, but her forced resignation was quietly glossed over and it never reached the press. Tommy Lee Judd’s family never knew the name of the officer who shot their fourteen-year-old son six times. At the inquest it was stated that the boy had ignored three police warnings to stop. He had been charged with crack dealing two years previously but the statements from his probation officer that he had been clean for the past six months were glossed over. His death was recorded, and the record filed away. No one mentioned that he had had no weapon, and had been mistaken for another suspect – or that the officer who opened fire had subsequently been released from all duties and was no longer attached to the force.
In fact Lieutenant Page might never have existed, and, as word passed, no one who had worked alongside her spoke to her again. She was given the cold shoulder. She had betrayed their badge, her rank and position: she had been drunk on duty, and a fourteen-year-old boy had died. They closed ranks – not to protect Lorraine, but to protect themselves.
Twelve years’ service, two commendations, and a service record that any officer, male or female, would have been proud of, was over.
Linda La Plante, Cold Shoulder
Reading comprehension: 1A; 2D; 3A; 4D; 5C; 6B; 7D; 8A; 9B; 10A
Paraphrase Test: 1C; 2B; 3A; 4C; 5D; 6B; 7A; 8C; 9A; 10B;
Grammar test: 1A; 2C; 3A; 4C; 5A; 6D; 7C; 8B; 9D; 10C; 11B; 12A; 13A; 14B; 15D.
Vocabulary cloze: 1C; 2A; 3D; 4B; 5D; 6A; 7C; 8B; 9A; 10D; 11B; 12C; 13A; 14D; 15B;